Academic sources

Articles by scholars on press and media freedom published in peer-reviewed academic journals. Open access articles are privileged

Troll Factories: The Internet Research Agency and State-Sponsored Agenda Building

Darren L. Linvill and Patrick L. Warren (Clemson University) published a working paper about the methods used by the Internet Research Agency, a Russia-sponsored troll group

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Populism in online election coverage

How populist messages by media actors, political actors, and readers are distributed via online news articles, and reader comments during election campaigns in the United Kingdom, Switzerland, and France

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Commercial pressures in Spanish newsrooms

A study based on 50 interviews with Spanish journalists examines how they respond to commercial pressure from newspapers’ advertisers

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Mediated Personalization of Executive European Union Politics

A piece of automated content analysis on a corpus of articles covering the European Commission from 1992 to 2016

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Media Independence through Routine Press-State Relations

A case study of media independence and press-state relationship based on coverage of migration in the United Kingdom

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Challenges to Media Freedom: A view from Europe

Drawing on the findings of two projects awarded by the European Commission, the paper examines the sources of the threats hindering media freedom in Europe

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Italy: From Italian Constitution to the Internet era

Perspectives, challenges and developments for the Italian jurisprudence

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How the news media activate public expression and influence national agendas

Media outlets exert a very significant influence on expressed public opinion, a large-scale experiment proves

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The cultural and economic power of advertisers in the business press

A study of the impact of advertising practices on the editorial independence of reporters

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The Effects of Mass Surveillance on Journalists’ Relations With Confidential Sources

A qualitative study on the way real or perceived surveillance impacts on the behaviour of journalists and their relationship with sources

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