Academic sources

Articles by scholars on press and media freedom published in peer-reviewed academic journals. Open access articles are privileged

What Politicians Look for in the News and How That Affects Their Behavior

The study analyses what kind of information politicians look for in the news and how these “informational media use motives” explain their media responsiveness. Classic uses and gratifications (U&G) tradition in communication research is applied to elite studies by using a survey of Finnish MPs

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The Panama and Paradise Papers: The Rise of a Global Fourth Estate

This article connects recent large-scale projects by the International Consortium of Investigative Journalists (ICIJ), such as the Panama and Paradise Papers revelations, to ongoing theoretical discussions about emergent forms of journalism

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Italy: From Italian Constitution to the Internet era

Perspectives, challenges and developments for the Italian jurisprudence

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How the news media activate public expression and influence national agendas

Media outlets exert a very significant influence on expressed public opinion, a large-scale experiment proves

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The cultural and economic power of advertisers in the business press

A study of the impact of advertising practices on the editorial independence of reporters

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The Effects of Mass Surveillance on Journalists’ Relations With Confidential Sources

A qualitative study on the way real or perceived surveillance impacts on the behaviour of journalists and their relationship with sources

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Control the money, control the media

An account of the ways governments use funding to keep the media in line

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Defining "Fake News." A Typology of Scholarly Definitions

In the last two decades, the term "fake news" has been used with several different meanings, which fall into six categories. It is possible to map them out according to their reliance on facts and their intention to mislead

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"They Go for Gender First." The Nature and Effect of Sexist Abuse of Female Technology Journalists

Most women journalists writing about technology experience forms of harassment. As a result, they tend to resort to self-censorship and risk to be marginalised from the media industry

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Disinformation and Social Bot Operations in the Run Up to the 2017 French Presidential Election

In a paper published on First Monday, Emilio Ferrara studies the role of Twitter in the MacronLeaks disinformation campaign

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