Academic sources

Articles by scholars on press and media freedom published in peer-reviewed academic journals. Open access articles are privileged

Junk News and Bots during the German Parliamentary Election: What are German Voters Sharing over Twitter?

The article studies Twitter data on bot activity and junk news using a set of hashtags related to the 2017 German Parliamentary Election

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The cultural and economic power of advertisers in the business press

A study of the impact of advertising practices on the editorial independence of reporters

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The Effects of Mass Surveillance on Journalists’ Relations With Confidential Sources

A qualitative study on the way real or perceived surveillance impacts on the behaviour of journalists and their relationship with sources

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Control the money, control the media

An account of the ways governments use funding to keep the media in line

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Defining "Fake News." A Typology of Scholarly Definitions

In the last two decades, the term "fake news" has been used with several different meanings, which fall into six categories. It is possible to map them out according to their reliance on facts and their intention to mislead

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Are people incidentally exposed to news on social media? A comparative analysis

The article examines incidental exposure to news on social media (Facebook, YouTube, Twitter) in four countries (Italy, Australia, United Kingdom, United States) finding that social media use is significantly related to increased news use, even among those who come across news on social media while doing other things

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"They Go for Gender First." The Nature and Effect of Sexist Abuse of Female Technology Journalists

Most women journalists writing about technology experience forms of harassment. As a result, they tend to resort to self-censorship and risk to be marginalised from the media industry

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Disinformation and Social Bot Operations in the Run Up to the 2017 French Presidential Election

In a paper published on First Monday, Emilio Ferrara studies the role of Twitter in the MacronLeaks disinformation campaign

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Identifying and Countering Fake News

A paper published on Arizona Legal Studies identifies distinct types of fake news based on intent and motivation, and discusses solutions based on law, market, code/architecture, and social norms

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Churnalism on the Rise? Assessing Convergence Effects on Editorial Practices

Newrooms' excessive reliance on pre-packaged sources of news lowers the quality of information and threatens media pluralism, but it has become a mainstream practice - at least in the case of Greece

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