Legal Resources

Independent Newspapers v. Ireland: €1.25 million defamation award against newspaper violated Article 10

High damages for defamation have a “chilling effect" on freedom of expression, thus require the “most careful scrutiny” and “very strong justification”. A ECtHR landmark judgment against against abuse of defamation law

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Spain’s Transparency Lottery

The difficulties for access to information and transparency in Spain. A first instance court ruled in favour of the human rights organization Access Info Europe, with regard to the disclosure of documents about Spain's progress on open government

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Russia’s Double Standard on Dealing with “Fake” News

The supremacy of the state’s version of events is a vital national interest in Russia. The legislation targets not only those news deemed to be "false" or biased, but also historical narratives.

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Italy: a case endangering journalists’ rights to report and protect their sources

An analysis of the background and context of the on-going case involving Italian journalists Davide Vecchi and Augusto Mattioli, who are writing about the bankruptcy scandal of an historical Italian bank

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Freedom of expression: the crucial role of Strasbourg

In Strasbourg on March 24th, judges, journalists, lawyers and activists discussed the challenges facing the protection of free expression in Europe

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True Freedom of Information Remains Elusive in Italy

After finally adopting a proper freedom of information act, Italy improved its right to information rating - but only in theory, as in practice there is still much to be done to ensure freedom of information.

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Ólafsson v. Iceland: Should journalists always seek “appropriate legal advice” from now on?

ECtHR judgment Ólafsson v. Iceland overall reinforces freedom of expression in Europe, yet it also features somewhat puzzling conclusions, inviting journalists to seek “appropriate legal advice” in a wide range of situations

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Orloskaya iskra v. Russia: Reporting in media during election campaign must be free from content restrictions

Is it legitimate to restrict freedom of expression in time of elections? Can political journalism be hindered by electoral laws? ECtHR examined the question in this case, concluding in favor of freedom of the media

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Pihl v. Sweden: Pushing Online Intermediaries Towards Private Censorship and Deanonymisation?

The recent decision by the ECtHR in Pihl v. Sweden marks a new step in the definition of the emerging jurisprudence on liability of online intermediaries

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Joint declaration on freedom of expression and “fake news”, disinformation and propaganda

UN Special Rapporteur on Freedom of Opinion and Expression and OSCE Representative on Freedom of the Media call all relevant actors to take steps in countering fake news and propaganda

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Audiovisual Media Services Directive

The EU Audiovisual Media Services Directive (AVMSD) governs EU-wide coordination of national legislation on all audiovisual media, both traditional TV broadcasts and on-demand services

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European Convention on Human Rights

Article 10 of the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) is devoted to Freedom of expressions and defines the admissible conditions under which this freedom may be restricted

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European Charter on the Freedom of the Press

The charter formulates principles for the freedom of the press from government interference - in particular for their right to safety from surveillance, electronic eavesdropping and searches of editorial departments and computers, and to unimpeded access for journalists and citizens to all domestic and foreign sources of information

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European Charter on Fundamental Rights

Article 11 of the European Charter on Fundamental Rights Human Rights is devoted to Freedom of expression and information

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