Publication Date: June 2021
Research and Editorial Team: Judit Bayer, Petra Bárd, Lina Vosyliute, Ngo Chun Luk

The study builds on the results of a previous, preliminary paper by the same research team.

The researchers used a three-step data collection methodology:

1) a preliminary survey from civil society to map the major issues across the EU,

2) qualitative expert country notes produced by a network of academics and legal practitioners covering all 27 EU Member States

3) a focus group discussion to identify solutions at the EU level to the most complex issues.

The study confirms that SLAPPs can affect the foundations of European integration and values enshrined in Article 2 TEU, such as  fundamental  rights,  democracy,  and  the  rule  of  law, as the  main  objective of SLAPPs is to create a chilling effect on a speaker criticising an applicant.


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