Surveying the landscape - Initiatives to counter spyware


Within the context of the 2023 MFRR Summit dedicated to “Press Freedom on the Line” - which took place from the 29 to the 31 of March - this discussion explored the strengths and weaknesses of the current draft of Article 4 of the EMFA, through a comparative analysis of the existing independent authorities that the article requires member states to designate, in order to deal with complaints about breaches of provisions of the article itself. The lack of judicial ex-ante evaluation mechanisms were discussed as a key missing element which has attracted much criticism from media-focused NGOs and civil society organisations which have been called upon to provide feedback by the Commission.


  • Eugenia Siapera, Professor of Information and Communication Studies, Head of the ICS School at University College Dublin
  • Prof. em. Dirk Voorhoof, Professor, Human Rights Centre Ghent University


  • Dimitri Bettoni, Editor and Researcher, Osservatorio Balcani e Caucaso Transeuropa