Academic sources

Articles by scholars on press and media freedom published in peer-reviewed academic journals. Open access articles are privileged

Briefing Notes Series on Freedom of Expression

With these Briefing Notes, the Centre for Law and Democracy provides a summary of key standards regarding freedom of expression. Articulated into twelve chapters, the Notes tackle the topic from different perspectives, including more traditional ones ("Freedom of expression as a Human Right) as well as topic of more recent origin (e.g., Digital Rights)

read more Media pluralism Access to information Digital rights Legal protection

Challenges to Media Freedom: A view from Europe

Drawing on the findings of two projects awarded by the European Commission, the paper examines the sources of the threats hindering media freedom in Europe

read more EU Member States European policies and legislation Political pressure Media ownership Media freedom

What Politicians Look for in the News and How That Affects Their Behavior

The study analyses what kind of information politicians look for in the news and how these “informational media use motives” explain their media responsiveness. Classic uses and gratifications (U&G) tradition in communication research is applied to elite studies by using a survey of Finnish MPs

read more Finland Local media

News in Social Media

The article analyses news-gathering on social media, focusing on theories of opinion leaders and the concept of incidental news consumption. The research uses a combination of representative survey data and qualitative interviews with young people aged 16–19 in Sweden

read more Social media Sweden Access to information Ethics of journalism

Online and Newsworthy: Have Online Sources Changed Journalism?

This special issue combines insights from seven studies, integrating key findings to advance the understanding of the use of online sources in the news production process, the change of the relationship between journalists and different groups of actors; and the reasons for the use of online sources during journalists’ daily work and the verification of these sources

read more Ethics of journalism Social media Fact-checking Digitalisation

The echo chamber is overstated: the moderating effect of political interest and diverse media

The study analyzes the relationship between media diversity and political interest, challenging the impact of echo chambers and tempering fears of partisan segregation

read more Fake news and disinformation Freedom of expression Media freedom United Kingdom

Are people incidentally exposed to news on social media? A comparative analysis

The article examines incidental exposure to news on social media (Facebook, YouTube, Twitter) in four countries (Italy, Australia, United Kingdom, United States) finding that social media use is significantly related to increased news use, even among those who come across news on social media while doing other things

read more Social media United Kingdom Italy Australia New Zeland Pacific Fake news and disinformation

De-Europeanization in the Balkans. Media freedom in post-Milošević Serbia

This article applies case study analysis to Serbian media freedom in order to verify whether the media sector is undergoing a process of de-Europeanization while the country is advancing toward EU accession

read more Serbia Media freedom Freedom of expression Censorship Media pluralism

Junk News and Bots during the German Parliamentary Election: What are German Voters Sharing over Twitter?

The article studies Twitter data on bot activity and junk news using a set of hashtags related to the 2017 German Parliamentary Election

read more Fake news and disinformation Germany Propaganda Social media