Academic sources

Articles by scholars on press and media freedom published in peer-reviewed academic journals. Open access articles are privileged

Sourcing the Sources: An analysis of the use of Twitter and Facebook as a journalistic source

The study analyses the sourcing techniques used by newspaper journalists in the United States, the United Kingdom and Germany. The comparison of Twitter and Facebook sources is given to verify whether the findings apply to social media in general

read more Ethics of journalism Social media Germany United Kingdom

Neutrollization: Industrialized trolling as a pro-Kremlin strategy of desecuritization

This research paper, published on the Security Dialogue journal, identifies and discusses the practice of "neutrollization", a trolling practice aimed at neutralising civil society attempts to cast the Kremlin regime as a societal security threat

read more Russia Social media Fake news and disinformation Online news Online media

Is There a Future for Journalism?

This study published in the journal Journalism Practice focuses on political and economic matters impacting journalism's future, the safety of journalists, and internet governance

read more Safety of journalists Freedom of expression Access to information

Can’t We Just Disregard Fake News? The Consequences of Exposure to Inaccurate Information

Disinformation can create confusion, doubt, and reliance on inaccurate content. A paper, published on Policy Insights from the Behavioral and Brain Sciences, discusses the problem and possible solutions

read more Fake news and disinformation

The Imperial Legacies of Television within Europe

The study gives a postcolonial account of intra-European broadcast regions through industrial collaborations, imperial vestiges, and imperial connections

read more EU Member States Public broadcasting

The fake news game: actively inoculating against the risk of misinformation

Can a game in which participants create a fake news article help them spot misinformation in the real world? Researchers made an experiment in a high school in the Netherlands

read more Fake news and disinformation Netherlands Media literacy

Do tabloids poison the well of social media? Explaining democratically dysfunctional news sharing

The study analyzes misinformation, disinformation, and “fake news” using a new theoretical framework and a unique research design integrating survey data and analysis of observed news sharing behaviors on social media in the United Kingdom. The research is designed of combination analysis of news media content, self-reports from relevant groups of social media users, and digital trace data

read more United Kingdom Fake news and disinformation Social media Media freedom

Fake News as a Floating Signifier: Hegemony, Antagonism and the Politics of Falsehood

The paper, published on Javnost - The Public Journal, argues that “fake news” has become a “floating signifier”, something which is used by different factions as a part of a battle to impose their viewpoint

read more Fake news and disinformation

Fighting for recognition: Online abuse of women bloggers in Germany, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the United States

This study argues that democratic potential of social media in democracies remains haphazard because online abuse is not fully recognized as entangling online and offline communication, constituted and constructed through technological, legal, social, and cultural factors. It is based on interviews with 109 bloggers who write about feminisms, family, and/or maternity politics. According to the findings 73.4% had negative experiences due to blogging and/or social media use

read more Hate speech Digital safety Digital rights Safety of journalists Media and gender Germany Switzerland United Kingdom

A Structured Response to Misinformation: Defining and Annotating Credibility Indicators in News Articles

This study suggests a way to determine the credibility of newspaper articles by developing collectively agreed indicators. The aim is to allow credible content to lead to greater collaboration and data-sharing across initiatives. As proof-of-concept, it presents a dataset of 40 articles of varying credibility annotated with these indicators

read more Fake news and disinformation Media literacy Ethics of journalism