Legal Resources

News on notable legislative changes and other legal issues. Special attention is paid to significant trials marking the emergence of some new jurisprudence

Freedom of Expression and Information - 2014 ECHR and CJEU Case Law

A review of the European Court of Human Rights and European Court of Justice 2014 case-law on freedom of expression, media and journalistic freedoms

read more Freedom of expression Whistleblowing Council of Europe Member States EU Member States Russia Turkey

Press freedom in the EU: Legal framework and challenges

The European Parliamentary Research Service (EPRS) provides with this short briefing, an effective contextualization of the legal framework and the challenges for Press freedom in the EU

read more Legal protection Freedom of expression Access to information Media pluralism Media Law

Romania: Investigative journalism law rejected by the Senate

The Romanian Senate rejected the draft of a law that legislators say intended to fight corruption by rewarding investigative journalists and other whistleblowers. The proposed law called for a special fund that would support people who reported on corruption via the mass media or via complaints to investigating and prosecuting bodies

read more Romania Investigative journalism

Use of personally-identifying information in reporting in Germany

A German court ruled that the interest of the public in the case of a dentist under investigation for aggravated assault takes precedence over the plaintiff's right to privacy. The plaintiff had sued for an injunction to stop a newspaper from publishing further articles pertaining to the case where he could be easily identified

read more Germany Legal protection Privacy

A Review of the European Court’s Freedom of Expression Cases in 2013

A review of the ECHR 2013 case-law on freedom of expression, media and journalistic freedoms

read more Defamation and Libel Whistleblowing

Positive obligations on member States under Article 10 to protect journalists and prevent impunity

This research report by Council of Europe/European Court of Human Rights explains the principles of positive obligations on states implied by article 10 of ECHR, focusing on the obligation to protect journalists and prevent impunity

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Audiovisual Media Services Directive

The EU Audiovisual Media Services Directive (AVMSD) governs EU-wide coordination of national legislation on all audiovisual media, both traditional TV broadcasts and on-demand services

read more EU Member States European Policy Media Law

European Convention on Human Rights

Article 10 of the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) is devoted to Freedom of expressions and defines the admissible conditions under which this freedom may be restricted

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European Charter on the Freedom of the Press

The charter formulates principles for the freedom of the press from government interference - in particular for their right to safety from surveillance, electronic eavesdropping and searches of editorial departments and computers, and to unimpeded access for journalists and citizens to all domestic and foreign sources of information

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European Charter on Fundamental Rights

Article 11 of the European Charter on Fundamental Rights Human Rights is devoted to Freedom of expression and information

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General comment No. 34 on Article 19 ICCPR

The UN Human Rights Committee's fundamental remarks on Article 19 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) on freedoms of opinion and expression

read more Freedom of expression Media pluralism Media Law Human rights Media freedom Access to information

IFJ Global Charter of Ethics for Journalists

Adopted on 12th June 2019 in Tunis, the IFJ Global Charter of Ethics for Journalists completes the IFJ Declaration of Principles on the Conduct of Journalists of 1954 (the Bordeaux Declaration) and is based on major texts of international law

read more Freedom of expression Journalism education Media freedom

Press Freedom Police Codex

The Codex formulates in eight clauses how the police and journalists can cooperate

read more Safety of journalists Media freedom

EP Resolution: Strengthening Media Freedom: the Protection of Journalists in Europe, Hate Speech, Disinformation and the Role of Platforms

European Parliament resolution of 25 November 2020 on strengthening media freedom: the protection of journalists in Europe, hate speech, disinformation and the role of platforms (2020/2009(INI)). On 25 November 2020 the European Parliament adopted a very important resolution tackling many aspects of media freedom

read more SLAPP Safety of journalists European Policy

European Democracy Action Plan

This action plan addresses the EU institutions, national governments and parliaments − who have primary responsibility for ensuring the sound functioning of democracy −, as well as other national authorities, political parties, media and civil society, and online platforms. In full respect of national competences, it sets out a reinforced EU policy framework and specific measures to:

-Promote free and fair elections and strong democratic participation;

-support free and independent media; and

-counter disinformation

read more SLAPP Safety of journalists European Policy

DRAFT REPORT on the strengthening democracy and media freedom and pluralism in the EU: the undue use of actions under civil and criminal law to sil...

For the Committee on Legal Affairs and the Committee on Civil Liberties, Justice and Home Affairs, the Rapporteurs MEP Tiemo Wölken and MEP Roberta Metsola drafted an initiative report with a motion for a EP Resolution about SLAPPs

read more SLAPP Defamation and Libel Copyright European Policy

Resolution 2382 (2021) of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe: Media freedom, public trust and the people’s right to know

With 111 votes in favor, 4 against and 16 abstensions, the PACE adopted a resolution promoted one year and a half ago by the Italian Roberto Rampi. The motion stated that "today, human rights, democracy and the rule of law are challenged by post-truth narratives, which are unfortunately gaining strength and public support. At the same time, the concentration and lack of transparency of media ownership hamper true media pluralism, and recurrent attempts to manipulate public opinion undermine constructive public debate. In this alarming context, people are losing their entitlement to a free and conscious self-determination, and public trust in media and democratic institutions is declining"

read more SLAPP

Report of the UN Special Rapporteur on the promotion and protection of the right to freedom of opinion and expression (9 Oct. 2019)

In the present report, submitted in accordance with Human Rights Council resolution 34/18 , the Special Rapporteur on the promotion and protection of the right to freedom of opinion and expression explains how those standards provide a framework for Governments considering regulatory options and companies determining how to respect human rights online

read more Freedom of expression Hate speech

Recommendation on the protection, safety and empowerment of journalists

The Recommendation, published on 16 September 2021, is part of the Commission's work to support media freedom and pluralism in the EU

read more Safety of journalists SLAPP Local media Media pluralism

INI REPORT on strengthening democracy and media freedom and pluralism in the EU: the undue use of actions under civil and criminal law to silence j...

Approved by the European Parliament on 11 November 2021 with 444 votes in favour, 48 against and 75 abstained, this initiative by the LIBE and JURI Committee aims at tackling the abuse of legal tools that threatens freedom of expression

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JOINT DECLARATION ON FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION AND ELECTIONS IN THE DIGITAL AGE

The United Nations (UN) Special Rapporteur on Freedom of Opinion and Expression, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) Representative on Freedom of the Media, and the Organization of American States (OAS) Special Rapporteur on Freedom of Expression, published this joint declartion in April 2020

read more Freedom of expression

Recommendation CM/Rec(2022)4 of the Committee of Ministers to member States on promoting a favourable environment for quality journalism in the di...

Adopted by the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe on 17 March 2022 at the 1429th meeting of the Ministers' Deputies

read more Media freedom

Proposal for a Directive on strategic lawsuits against public participation (SLAPP)

27/04/2022

The proposed Directive covers SLAPPs in civil matters with cross-border implications

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Recommendation on strategic lawsuits against public participation (SLAPP)

27/04/2022

Beside proposing a Directive on transnational cases, the European Commission issued a Recommendation to Member States to tackle SLAPPs at national level

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Cybersecurity Strategy of the European Union: An Open, Safe and Secure Cyberspace

The joint communication to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committe of the Regions stresses that for cyberspace to remain open and free, the same norms, principles and values that the EU upholds offline, should also apply online. Fundamental rights, democracy and the rule of law need to be protected in cyberspace

read more Cybersecurity

NIS Directive

The NIS Directive is the first piece of EU-wide legislation on cybersecurity. It provides legal measures to boost the overall level of cybersecurity in the EU

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Cybersecurity Act

The Cybersecurity Act strengthens the EU Agency for cybersecurity (ENISA) and establishes a cybersecurity certification framework for products and services

read more Cybersecurity