Legal Resources

News on notable legislative changes and other legal issues. Special attention is paid to significant trials marking the emergence of some new jurisprudence

Challenges to the ECtHR from Russia and Turkey: Freedom of Expression on the Internet

The regulation of the online domain is gradually being tightened: an analysis of the most recent challenges to the ECtHR in Turkey and Russia

read more Digital rights Censorship Surveillance Turkey Russia

ECtHR: Conviction of journalists for an interview using a hidden camera infringed their freedom of expression

After a lengthy legal fight, Swiss journalists obtained a positive ruling from the European Court of Human Rights, determining that their conviction for using a hidden camera in the case of insurance broker malpractice violated their rights

read more Freedom of expression Legal protection European Court of Human Rights

Freedom of Expression and the Broadcasting Media

A selection of the ECHR case law in the field of the audio-visual broadcasting

read more Legal protection Council of Europe Member States

Protection of business secrets does not rule out the right of the press to be informed by government

On 25 March 2015 the Federal Administrative Court of Germany in Leipzig ruled that representatives of the press can demand information about facts that protect business secrets from government agencies, if their right to be informed outweighs the interest of business secret protection.

read more Germany Media freedom Legal protection Media Law

ECtHR: Right to information according to Art.10 ECHR- Press or anybody

The ECtHR rejected on 6 January 2015 a German’s appeal and ruled that public authorities do not necessarily infringe Art. 10 of the Convention by refusing to give information (application no. 70287/11)

read more Media Law Access to information

Court rules online news sites are not liable for offensive readers’ comments

In the MTE case, the ECHR tested the principles set forth in the controversial Grand Chamber’s Delfi case concerning the notion of liability of news portals for readers' comment

read more Hungary European Court of Human Rights Media freedom

Russian surveillance law

In a case related to alleged mobile phone surveillance, the European Court of Human Rights decided that an editor in Russia was entitled to claim to be a victim of a violation of the European Convention on Human Rights.

read more Russia Surveillance Privacy Human rights Media freedom Legal protection European Policy

Anti-terrorist surveillance law

After a case filed by a non-governmental watchdog organisation, the European Court of Human Rights has decided that the Hungarian anti-terrorist surveillance law violates the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR)

read more Hungary Surveillance Privacy Human rights Legal protection

Journalism is not terrorism

Despite ruling that the UK's Terrorism Act is incompatible with human rights and more protection is needed for journalists, Britain's Court of Appeal also ruled authorities were justified in detaining a reporter and confiscating his equipment at Heathrow Airport

read more United Kingdom Human rights Media freedom Legal protection Surveillance

Reform of the Republic of Armenia Law on Television and Radio

This report analyses the Law on Making Amendments and Supplements to the Republic of Armenia Law on Television and Radio of December 2015, implemented to prepare for the country's digital switchover

read more Armenia Legal protection Public broadcasting

Audiovisual Media Services Directive

The EU Audiovisual Media Services Directive (AVMSD) governs EU-wide coordination of national legislation on all audiovisual media, both traditional TV broadcasts and on-demand services

read more EU Member States European Policy Media Law

European Convention on Human Rights

Article 10 of the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) is devoted to Freedom of expressions and defines the admissible conditions under which this freedom may be restricted

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European Charter on the Freedom of the Press

The charter formulates principles for the freedom of the press from government interference - in particular for their right to safety from surveillance, electronic eavesdropping and searches of editorial departments and computers, and to unimpeded access for journalists and citizens to all domestic and foreign sources of information

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European Charter on Fundamental Rights

Article 11 of the European Charter on Fundamental Rights Human Rights is devoted to Freedom of expression and information

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General comment No. 34 on Article 19 ICCPR

The UN Human Rights Committee's fundamental remarks on Article 19 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) on freedoms of opinion and expression

read more Freedom of expression Media pluralism Media Law Human rights Media freedom Access to information

IFJ Global Charter of Ethics for Journalists

Adopted on 12th June 2019 in Tunis, the IFJ Global Charter of Ethics for Journalists completes the IFJ Declaration of Principles on the Conduct of Journalists of 1954 (the Bordeaux Declaration) and is based on major texts of international law

read more Freedom of expression Journalism education Media freedom

Press Freedom Police Codex

The Codex formulates in eight clauses how the police and journalists can cooperate

read more Safety of journalists Media freedom

EP Resolution: Strengthening Media Freedom: the Protection of Journalists in Europe, Hate Speech, Disinformation and the Role of Platforms

European Parliament resolution of 25 November 2020 on strengthening media freedom: the protection of journalists in Europe, hate speech, disinformation and the role of platforms (2020/2009(INI)). On 25 November 2020 the European Parliament adopted a very important resolution tackling many aspects of media freedom

read more SLAPP Safety of journalists European Policy

European Democracy Action Plan

This action plan addresses the EU institutions, national governments and parliaments − who have primary responsibility for ensuring the sound functioning of democracy −, as well as other national authorities, political parties, media and civil society, and online platforms. In full respect of national competences, it sets out a reinforced EU policy framework and specific measures to:

-Promote free and fair elections and strong democratic participation;

-support free and independent media; and

-counter disinformation

read more SLAPP Safety of journalists European Policy

DRAFT REPORT on the strengthening democracy and media freedom and pluralism in the EU: the undue use of actions under civil and criminal law to sil...

For the Committee on Legal Affairs and the Committee on Civil Liberties, Justice and Home Affairs, the Rapporteurs MEP Tiemo Wölken and MEP Roberta Metsola drafted an initiative report with a motion for a EP Resolution about SLAPPs

read more SLAPP Defamation and Libel Copyright European Policy

Resolution 2382 (2021) of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe: Media freedom, public trust and the people’s right to know

With 111 votes in favor, 4 against and 16 abstensions, the PACE adopted a resolution promoted one year and a half ago by the Italian Roberto Rampi. The motion stated that "today, human rights, democracy and the rule of law are challenged by post-truth narratives, which are unfortunately gaining strength and public support. At the same time, the concentration and lack of transparency of media ownership hamper true media pluralism, and recurrent attempts to manipulate public opinion undermine constructive public debate. In this alarming context, people are losing their entitlement to a free and conscious self-determination, and public trust in media and democratic institutions is declining"

read more SLAPP

Report of the UN Special Rapporteur on the promotion and protection of the right to freedom of opinion and expression (9 Oct. 2019)

In the present report, submitted in accordance with Human Rights Council resolution 34/18 , the Special Rapporteur on the promotion and protection of the right to freedom of opinion and expression explains how those standards provide a framework for Governments considering regulatory options and companies determining how to respect human rights online

read more Freedom of expression Hate speech