Legal Resources

News on notable legislative changes and other legal issues. Special attention is paid to significant trials marking the emergence of some new jurisprudence

Köksal v. Turkey: Excessive Formalism or Strict Adherence to Admissibility Criteria?

Recently the European Court of Human Rights declared thousands of cases from Turkey inadmissible for failure to exhaust newly-available domestic remedies. The authors look at the context and content of the inadmissibility decision

read more Turkey Freedom of expression Political pressure European Court of Human Rights

Brambilla v. Italy

In a case involving illegal interception of police communication by three Italian journalists, ECtHR reiterates that Article 10 ECHR sets out limits to the protection afforded to the right to freedom of expression which remains valid even where the press reports on serious questions of general interest

read more Freedom of expression Investigative journalism Italy European Court of Human Rights

“Tackling Illegal Content Online”: A Step towards Full Legitimation of Private Censorship Online?

On 28 September 2017, the European Commission published its Communication “Tackling Illegal Content Online”, raising concern about the risks for private censorship by online platforms and the modalities of its implementation

read more Content blocking and filtering Digital rights Access to information European Policy


Journalists dismissed from Polish public radio return to work

Two journalists were dismissed in December 2016 from Polish Radio for "disciplinary reasons". Both filed a court action against the dismissal and are now reinstatement to their job

read more Freedom of expression Legal protection Media freedom Media Law Public broadcasting Public Service Media Poland

Free speech and EU Commission's communication on "Tackling Illegal Content Online"

An anaysis by European Digital Rights (EDRi) following the EU Commission Communication "Tackling Illegal Content Online", addressing its potential risks for free speech

read more European Policy Media Law Online news Online media Content blocking and filtering Copyright Cybersecurity Digital rights

The Russian VPN ban: another round in the battle for a free Internet

In the Russian Federation, a new Law that prohibits anonymizers and VPN usage is to enter into force on 1 November 2017. What are VPNs and what does this law mean for freedom of expression? The author attempts to disentangle the technicalities at stake

read more Access to information Censorship Content blocking and filtering Digital rights Media Law Online news Online media Russia

Restrictions on parliamentary reporting violates free expression: MLDI files intervention at European Court

MLDI and four other NGOs have filed a third-party intervention in the European Court of Human Rights case of Iván Szabolcs Mándli and Others v. Hungary. The Court will examine the circumstances under which journalists may be forbidden from entering and reporting from public fora, such as parliamentary premises

read more Legal protection Access to information Transparency European Court of Human Rights Media Law

Turkey: the legality of post-coup actions and the use of Bylock App as evidence in trials

An opinion on the legality of the Turkish state's reactions following the 2016 attempted coup and of the controversial use of certain facts as evidences of support or membership to a terrorist organization

read more Digital safety Encryption Digital rights Human rights Media Law Political pressure Turkey Safety of journalists

Satakunnan Markkinapörssi Oy and Satamedia Oy v. Finland

The Strasbourg Court found no violation of the right to freedom of expression where Finnish courts and authorities had prohibited two companies from processing and publishing personal - but already public - tax data, first through a newspaper and later through a text-messaging service

read more European Court of Human Rights Legal protection Open data Privacy Transparency

Audiovisual Media Services Directive

The EU Audiovisual Media Services Directive (AVMSD) governs EU-wide coordination of national legislation on all audiovisual media, both traditional TV broadcasts and on-demand services

read more EU Member States European Policy Media Law

European Convention on Human Rights

Article 10 of the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) is devoted to Freedom of expressions and defines the admissible conditions under which this freedom may be restricted

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European Charter on the Freedom of the Press

The charter formulates principles for the freedom of the press from government interference - in particular for their right to safety from surveillance, electronic eavesdropping and searches of editorial departments and computers, and to unimpeded access for journalists and citizens to all domestic and foreign sources of information

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European Charter on Fundamental Rights

Article 11 of the European Charter on Fundamental Rights Human Rights is devoted to Freedom of expression and information

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General comment No. 34 on Article 19 ICCPR

The UN Human Rights Committee's fundamental remarks on Article 19 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) on freedoms of opinion and expression

read more Freedom of expression Media pluralism Media Law Human rights Media freedom Access to information

IFJ Global Charter of Ethics for Journalists

Adopted on 12th June 2019 in Tunis, the IFJ Global Charter of Ethics for Journalists completes the IFJ Declaration of Principles on the Conduct of Journalists of 1954 (the Bordeaux Declaration) and is based on major texts of international law

read more Freedom of expression Journalism education Media freedom

Press Freedom Police Codex

The Codex formulates in eight clauses how the police and journalists can cooperate

read more Safety of journalists Media freedom

EP Resolution: Strengthening Media Freedom: the Protection of Journalists in Europe, Hate Speech, Disinformation and the Role of Platforms

European Parliament resolution of 25 November 2020 on strengthening media freedom: the protection of journalists in Europe, hate speech, disinformation and the role of platforms (2020/2009(INI)). On 25 November 2020 the European Parliament adopted a very important resolution tackling many aspects of media freedom

read more SLAPP Safety of journalists European Policy

European Democracy Action Plan

This action plan addresses the EU institutions, national governments and parliaments − who have primary responsibility for ensuring the sound functioning of democracy −, as well as other national authorities, political parties, media and civil society, and online platforms. In full respect of national competences, it sets out a reinforced EU policy framework and specific measures to:

-Promote free and fair elections and strong democratic participation;

-support free and independent media; and

-counter disinformation

read more SLAPP Safety of journalists European Policy

DRAFT REPORT on the strengthening democracy and media freedom and pluralism in the EU: the undue use of actions under civil and criminal law to sil...

For the Committee on Legal Affairs and the Committee on Civil Liberties, Justice and Home Affairs, the Rapporteurs MEP Tiemo Wölken and MEP Roberta Metsola drafted an initiative report with a motion for a EP Resolution about SLAPPs

read more SLAPP Defamation and Libel Copyright European Policy

Resolution 2382 (2021) of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe: Media freedom, public trust and the people’s right to know

With 111 votes in favor, 4 against and 16 abstensions, the PACE adopted a resolution promoted one year and a half ago by the Italian Roberto Rampi. The motion stated that "today, human rights, democracy and the rule of law are challenged by post-truth narratives, which are unfortunately gaining strength and public support. At the same time, the concentration and lack of transparency of media ownership hamper true media pluralism, and recurrent attempts to manipulate public opinion undermine constructive public debate. In this alarming context, people are losing their entitlement to a free and conscious self-determination, and public trust in media and democratic institutions is declining"

read more SLAPP