Legal Resources

News on notable legislative changes and other legal issues. Special attention is paid to significant trials marking the emergence of some new jurisprudence

The Media at Protests: Official Attitudes

Covering protests and demonstrations is part of the core function of journalism of disseminating public interest information. However, often media workers are subjected to intimidations and attacks, also by police

read more Safety of journalists European Court of Human Rights EU Member States Germany France Finland Italy Media freedom Legal protection Spain United Kingdom

M.L. AND W.W. v. Germany: Recent Developments in Judicial Balancing of Privacy and Free Speech Online

Recently, ECPMF reported on a ECtHR case concerning the “right to be forgotten” vis-à-vis two convicted criminals. A more in-depth analysis of this case follows, including a look into the question of judicial balancing online

read more Germany Censorship Freedom of expression Access to information European Court of Human Rights Human rights

Media Coverage of Protests and Demonstrations

A thematic fact-sheet by the Platform to promote the protection of journalism and safety of journalists of the Council of Europe that discuss a number of ECtHR cases on the media coverage of protests and demonstrations

read more Safety of journalists European Court of Human Rights Media freedom Freedom of expression Human rights Access to information Legal protection

SLAPPs’ 5 W’s: a background of the Strategic Lawsuits Against Public Participation

Following the assassination of Maltese journalist Daphne Caruana Galizia, a group of European MEPs is calling on the EU Commission to promote an anti-SLAPP EU directive, to counter the attempts at silencing investigative journalism. A backgrounder on the use of the acronym “SLAPP”.

read more Defamation and Libel Censorship Investigative journalism

“Telegram” Block in Russia: the Wider Context

Since mid-April 2018 the Russian authorities have, rather unsuccessfully so far, been attempting to block the “Telegram” messenger, which is an anonymous Internet communication tool. This brief item discusses the context and consequences of the decision

read more Russia Censorship Content blocking and filtering Encryption Surveillance

Tackling fake news, the Italian way

As measures against fake news are widely debated across Europe, the protocol adopted by the Italian Interior Ministry on the eve of political elections, enabling the Postal Police to fact-check and report contents, has caused concern in the public debate

read more Fake news and disinformation Freedom of expression Italy

Vexatious cases hindering investigative journalism in Italy

Frivolous legal cases against investigative journalists are often deployed as a strategy to silence them, ultimately seeking to hinder their work. A legal analysis on three cases involving defamation charges against Italian journalist Amalia De Simone

read more Investigative journalism Italy Defamation and Libel

Legal Defence Centres Fighting for Press Freedom in Italy

Ossigeno per l’Informazione and the Italian Coalition for Civil Liberties and Rights explain their work for journalists and non-profit associations who face legal charges or need legal assistance

read more Access to information Defamation and Libel

Montenegro: the fight against impunity begins in the courtroom

Two recent landmark judgements in Montenegro seek to end impunity for crimes against journalists, reversing a long-lasting trend and holding authorities responsible for failing to investigate attacks against journalist Tufik Softić

read more Legal protection Montenegro

Media before Serbian Courts: A Struggle to Reach European Standards

In the field of the media law, Serbian courts are reluctant to adapt to European Court of Human Rights case-law. Serbian NGO YUCOM identified a number of gaps in the jurisprudence and formulated recommendations to address them

read more Serbia Legal protection European Court of Human Rights

Audiovisual Media Services Directive

The EU Audiovisual Media Services Directive (AVMSD) governs EU-wide coordination of national legislation on all audiovisual media, both traditional TV broadcasts and on-demand services

read more EU Member States European Policy Media Law

European Convention on Human Rights

Article 10 of the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) is devoted to Freedom of expressions and defines the admissible conditions under which this freedom may be restricted

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European Charter on the Freedom of the Press

The charter formulates principles for the freedom of the press from government interference - in particular for their right to safety from surveillance, electronic eavesdropping and searches of editorial departments and computers, and to unimpeded access for journalists and citizens to all domestic and foreign sources of information

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European Charter on Fundamental Rights

Article 11 of the European Charter on Fundamental Rights Human Rights is devoted to Freedom of expression and information

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General comment No. 34 on Article 19 ICCPR

The UN Human Rights Committee's fundamental remarks on Article 19 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) on freedoms of opinion and expression

read more Freedom of expression Media pluralism Media Law Human rights Media freedom Access to information

IFJ Global Charter of Ethics for Journalists

Adopted on 12th June 2019 in Tunis, the IFJ Global Charter of Ethics for Journalists completes the IFJ Declaration of Principles on the Conduct of Journalists of 1954 (the Bordeaux Declaration) and is based on major texts of international law

read more Freedom of expression Journalism education Media freedom

Press Freedom Police Codex

The Codex formulates in eight clauses how the police and journalists can cooperate

read more Safety of journalists Media freedom

EP Resolution: Strengthening Media Freedom: the Protection of Journalists in Europe, Hate Speech, Disinformation and the Role of Platforms

European Parliament resolution of 25 November 2020 on strengthening media freedom: the protection of journalists in Europe, hate speech, disinformation and the role of platforms (2020/2009(INI)). On 25 November 2020 the European Parliament adopted a very important resolution tackling many aspects of media freedom

read more SLAPP Safety of journalists European Policy

European Democracy Action Plan

This action plan addresses the EU institutions, national governments and parliaments − who have primary responsibility for ensuring the sound functioning of democracy −, as well as other national authorities, political parties, media and civil society, and online platforms. In full respect of national competences, it sets out a reinforced EU policy framework and specific measures to:

-Promote free and fair elections and strong democratic participation;

-support free and independent media; and

-counter disinformation

read more SLAPP Safety of journalists European Policy