Legal Resources

News on notable legislative changes and other legal issues. Special attention is paid to significant trials marking the emergence of some new jurisprudence

True Freedom of Information Remains Elusive in Italy

After finally adopting a proper freedom of information act, Italy improved its right to information rating - but only in theory, as in practice there is still much to be done to ensure freedom of information

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Ólafsson v. Iceland: Should journalists always seek “appropriate legal advice” from now on?

ECtHR judgment Ólafsson v. Iceland overall reinforces freedom of expression in Europe, yet it also features somewhat puzzling conclusions, inviting journalists to seek “appropriate legal advice” in a wide range of situations

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Orloskaya iskra v. Russia: Reporting in media during election campaign must be free from content restrictions

Is it legitimate to restrict freedom of expression in time of elections? Can political journalism be hindered by electoral laws? ECtHR examined the question in this case, concluding in favor of freedom of the media

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Pihl v. Sweden: Pushing Online Intermediaries Towards Private Censorship and Deanonymisation?

The recent decision by the ECtHR in Pihl v. Sweden marks a new step in the definition of the emerging jurisprudence on liability of online intermediaries

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Joint declaration on freedom of expression and “fake news”, disinformation and propaganda

UN Special Rapporteur on Freedom of Opinion and Expression and OSCE Representative on Freedom of the Media call all relevant actors to take steps in countering fake news and propaganda

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The Right to Information Is a Human Right, Strasbourg Rules

Hungarian authorities erred when they refused to provide a human rights NGO access to information – an essential part of freedom of expression – about the employment of pro deo lawyers

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ECtHR ruling in Delfi and MTE cases: More Questions Than Answers

The role of online news portals as intermediaries and their liability for user-generated content has been at the centre of two recent ECtHR cases (DELFI and MTE). Divergent outcomes leave room for many questions

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Italy: new bill against cyberbullying endangers freedom of expression on the web

OssigenoInformazione warns against restrictions of freedom of expression on the web that may derive from the newly adopted bill against cyberbullying

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RO: Deputies reject draft Law to cut the audiovisual licence fee

Minimal conditions for PBS editorial independence are preserved in Romania, as the Parliament rejects the draft Law intended to abolish the audiovisual licence fee covering over 60% of the public broadcast revenues

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Spain's 'gag laws'

The 'gag laws', most popularly known as 'Ley Mordaza' or 'leys mordaza', have been found to systematically violate citizens' rights in Spain since their implementation last year. The organisation PDLI is following the situation closely and provides a guide on what the laws mean and what they have caused to journalists so far

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Audiovisual Media Services Directive

The EU Audiovisual Media Services Directive (AVMSD) governs EU-wide coordination of national legislation on all audiovisual media, both traditional TV broadcasts and on-demand services

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European Convention on Human Rights

Article 10 of the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) is devoted to Freedom of expressions and defines the admissible conditions under which this freedom may be restricted

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European Charter on the Freedom of the Press

The charter formulates principles for the freedom of the press from government interference - in particular for their right to safety from surveillance, electronic eavesdropping and searches of editorial departments and computers, and to unimpeded access for journalists and citizens to all domestic and foreign sources of information

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European Charter on Fundamental Rights

Article 11 of the European Charter on Fundamental Rights Human Rights is devoted to Freedom of expression and information

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Resolution on the Ethics of Journalism (CoE)

A 1993 Resolution by the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe exploring different aspects of the ethics of journalism

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General comment No. 34 on Article 19 ICCPR

The UN Human Rights Committee's fundamental remarks on Article 19 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) on freedoms of opinion and expression

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